Skin discolouration – whether it's dark spots, freckles, melasma or sun damage – can diminish radiance and promote a flawed, uneven and all too often dull complexion. 




Hormonal pigmentation (or melasma) is a build up of melanin, which develops in areas exposed to the sun, particularly on the face. The pigmentation appears as irregular shaped dark brown spots. This effect is usually a result a hormonal changes and are common in pregnant and menopausal women, as well as users of OCPs. 

There are two main areas that are typically affected including:

  • Midface: forehead, nose, chin, upper lip and centre of the cheeks.

  • Malar: cheeks and nose


Post-inflammatory pigmentation (PIH) causes darkening of the skin. It takes the form of different-sized spots. PIH is caused by an increase in melanin synthesis in response to an inflammatory injury or damage to the skin. If the excess melanin is produced on the top layer of the skin (epidermis) the hyperpigmentation is brownish in hue. If the excess melanin is produced in the lower layer of the skin (dermis) then it acquires a gray-blue coloration. Although PIH can occur in every skin type, it is most common in the higher phototypes V and VI and can affect both men and women equally.


Solar lentigines are spots on the skin associated with aging and exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun. They vary in color, from light brown to red or even black, and are located in the areas most exposed to the sun, particularly the hands, face, shoulders, arms and forehead, even the head if it is hairless.

From the age of 40, the skin starts to lose its ability to regenerate and recover from exposure to the sun, and the solar lentigines are very common in this age range, especially in those who spend time exposed to the sun’s rays.


Senile lentigines are brown to dark brown colored macules, from a few millimeters to 1-2 cm in diameter. Their surface is smooth and well defined. They usually appear after the age of 40 due to the cumulative effect of the sun and because with age melanin is unevenly distributed in the epidermis.

They are more frequent in the areas exposed to the sun like the face, back of the hands and neckline. They appear as flat, brown colored spots, and are predominantly oval in shape.


Ephelides are a congenital alteration of the pigmentation that are revealed by exposure to the sun. They are commonly called freckles. They are macules of a few millimeters diameter, light yellow or light brown, which usually appear in people with red hair or blondes with light-colored eyes. Their number increases with age. They are located mainly on the face, neck, forearms and legs, covering the shoulders, arms and thighs during the summertime.